Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a comprehensive approach to solving pest
Instead of simply trying to eradicate a pest, an IPM approach considers all of
the information and experience available, accounts for multiple objectives, and considers all available preventive and curative
options. Based on that foundation, informed decisions are implemented to
achieve optimum results. What those optimum results are varies with each
user's individual preferences. However, in general terms the goal of IPM
is to provide safe, effective, economical, environmentally sound, and socially
can be used wherever pest damage occurs. Among the more common types of pests are
insects, mites, rodents, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and weeds. The IPM approach has
been applied to pest problems in situations as diverse as houses and apartments, food
handling facilities, golf courses, storage areas, and farms.
specific techniques used for integrated pest management vary with each
situation, but there are fundamental principles that define IPM.
Identify the pest(s)
that are the source of the problem. This is not always as
simple as it may seem. Correct pest identification is required
to identify optimum solutions.
2. Understand the
biology and economics of the pest and the system in which the pest exists.
Monitor pests and natural
controls. Use standardized, tested monitoring methods rather than basing decisions on
4. Establish economic or aesthetic injury thresholds.
Pest management decisions are based on the potential damage from pest
infestations, status of natural enemies, sensitivity of the protected site (such
as stage of development of a crop), and the weather. Actions are taken only when
the potential damage is sufficient to justify action.
Select an appropriate strategy
of cultural, mechanical, biological, and/or
chemical prevention or control techniques.
include habitat modification and adapting operating procedures so that pest
damage is reduced and natural control is enhanced. Sanitation is the removal or
cleaning of sources of pest infestation. Choosing plant varieties that are
resistant to pest injury is a cultural control. Other agricultural examples are
adjusting planting time, fertilization, tillage, and harvest operations to have
the most beneficial or least detrimental affect on the pest management
are predators, parasites, and diseases that attack pests. Measures can be
conserve naturally occurring populations.
In some situations where naturally occurring biological controls are not
effective, they can be introduced from outside sources.
involves selecting a pesticide with the
lowest toxicity to humans and non-target organisms (including biological
controls), and using it in such a way as to prevent or minimize undesirable
environmental effects. The lowest effective amount of pesticide is applied
from carefully calibrated spray equipment.
Evaluate the pest management program
and improve it when possible. This requires keeping records and reviewing them
on a regular basis.